Towards nationwide implementation of 40% biodiesel blend fuel in Indonesia: a comprehensive road test and laboratory evaluation

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Laboratory for Thermodynamics Engine and Propulsion Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, 15314, Indonesia.

2 Research Center for Energy Conversion and Conservation, National Research and Innovation Agency, Banten 15314, Indonesia.

3 Research Center for Transportation Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency, Banten 15314, Indonesia.

4 The Indonesian Palm Oil Plantation Fund Management Agency, Ministry of Finance Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 10310, Indonesia.

5 Directorate General of Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 10320, Indonesia.

6 Testing Center for Oil and Gas LEMIGAS, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 12230, Indonesia.

7 Survey and Testing Center for Electricity, New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta 12230, Indonesia.

8 Department Mechanical Engineering, Pertamina University, Jakarta, Indonesia.

9 Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia.


This research focused on evaluating the technical viability of using biodiesel with a blending ratio of 40% v/v, which is expected to be implemented soon in Indonesia. Two kinds of biodiesel blends were prepared, a blend of 60% diesel fuel and 40% biodiesel (B40) and a blend of 60% diesel fuel, 30% biodiesel, and 10% hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) (B30D10). The fuels were tested on EuroII vehicles without any engine modifications through a 50,000 km endurance road test. Laboratory tests were also performed at certain traveled distances to evaluate various engine parameters, including power, fuel economy, exhaust emissions, and used engine oil properties. Engine components were inspected upon the completion of the road test. Cold-start ability was also examined to confirm the suitability of the investigated biofuels at low-temperature operating conditions in Indonesia. The road test results showed that vehicles fuelled with B40 and B30D10 could reach a distance of 50,000 km without encountering any technical issues. The laboratory evaluation during the road test indicated that B30D10 had a higher power and fuel economy than B40, with a maximum difference of 2%. Furthermore, B30D10 emitted lower CO, HC, and PM emissions than B40 throughout the distance traveled, with maximum differences of 11.4%, 14.7%, and 22.6%, respectively, but led to 15% higher NOx. Engine component inspection and used engine oil analysis confirmed the fulfillment of the manufacturer's recommendations for both B40 and B30D10. Finally, B40 and B30D10 were suitable for operating at low ambient temperatures in Indonesia, confirming them as practical options to be implemented in the nationwide 40% biodiesel blend fuel.

Graphical Abstract

Towards nationwide implementation of 40% biodiesel blend fuel in Indonesia: a comprehensive road test and laboratory evaluation


  • Indonesia will implement 40% biodiesel blend fuel nationwide soon.
  • Using 40% biodiesel blend fuel (B40) was studied with road and laboratory tests.
  • A blend of 60% diesel fuel, 30% biodiesel, and 10% hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) was also investigated.
  • Both B40- and B30D10-powered vehicles successfully completed the 50,000 km road test.
  • B30D10 had a higher maximum power, less emissions, and better fuel economy than B40.


  1. Agarwal, A.K., 2003. Lubricating oil tribology of a biodiesel-fuelled compression ignition engine, in: Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference. ICES2003-609. 36789, 751-765.
  2. Aghbashlo, M., Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, H., Shahbeik, H. Tabatabaei, M., 2022. The role of sustainability assessment tools in realizing bioenergy and bioproduct systems. Biofuel Res. J. 9(3), 1697-1706.
  3. Amriya Tasneem, H.R., Ravikumar, K.P., Ramakrishna, H.V., 2022. Performance and wear debris characteristics of karanja biodiesel and biolubricant as a substitute in a compression ignition engine. Fuel. 319, 123870.
  4. Arifin, Y.M., Arai, M., 2009. Deposition characteristics of diesel and bio-diesel fuels. Fuel. 88(11), 2163-2170.
  5. ASTM D893-14, 2018. Standard test method for insolubles in used lubricating oils.
  6. Bortel, I., Vávra, J., Takáts, M., 2019. Effect of HVO fuel mixtures on emissions and performance of a passenger car size diesel engine. Renewable Energy. 140, 680-691.
  7. Cardeño, F., Lapuerta, M., Rios, L., Agudelo, J.R., 2020. Reconsideration of regulated contamination limits to improve filterability of biodiesel and blends with diesel fuels. Renewable Energy. 159, 1243-1251.
  8. CIMAC, 2011. Used engine oil analysis-user interpretation guide.
  9. d’Ambrosio, S., Mancarella, A., Manelli, A., 2022. Utilization of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) in a Euro 6 dual-loop EGR diesel engine: behavior as a drop-in fuel and potentialities along calibration parameter sweeps. Energies. 15(19), 7202.
  10. Di Blasio, G., Ianniello, R., Beatrice, C., 2022. Hydrotreated vegetable oil as enabler for high-efficient and ultra-low emission vehicles in the view of 2030 targets. Fuel. 310, 122206.
  11. Dimitriadis, A., Natsios, I., Dimaratos, A., Katsaounis, D., Samaras, Z., Bezergianni, S., Lehto, K., 2018. Evaluation of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and effects on emissions of a passenger car diesel engine. Front. Mech. Eng. 4.
  12. DJEBTKE, 2019. Detail Standar dan Mutu (Spesifikasi) Bahan Bakar Nabati (Biofuel) Jenis Biodiesel Sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain Yang Dipasarkan Di Dalam Negeri 189 K/10/DJE/2019.
  13. DJEBTKE, 2022. Standar dan Mutu (Spesifikasi) Bahan Bakar Nabati Jenis Diesel Nabati (Diesel Biohidrokarbon) Sebagai Bahan Bakar Lain yang Dipasarkan di Dalam Negeri 95.K/EK.05/DJE/2022.
  14. Dong, T.M.H., Truong, T.H., 2019. Deposit formation in diesel engine and its effects. World Wide J. Multidiscip. Res. Dev. 5(10), 44-49.
  15. Ghadimi, S., Zhu, H., Durbin, T.D., Cocker, D.R., Karavalakis, G., 2022. The impact of hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) on the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Sci. Total Environ. 822, 153583.
  16. Gupta, J.G., Agarwal, A.K., 2021. Engine durability and lubricating oil tribology study of a biodiesel fuelled common rail direct injection medium-duty transportation diesel engine. Wear. 486-487, 204104.
  17. Hidayat, J.A., Sugiarto, B., 2020. Characteristic, structure, and morphology of carbon deposit from biodiesel blend. Evergreen. 7(4), 609-614.
  18. Holzer, A., Günthner, M., Jung, P., 2022. Performance of pure OME and various HVO–OME fuel blends as alternative fuels for a diesel engine. Automot. Engine Technol. 7, 369-383.
  19. Hor, C.J., Tan, Y.H., Mubarak, N.M., Tan, I.S., Ibrahim, M.L., Yek, P.N.Y., Karri, R.R., Khalid, M., 2023. Techno-economic assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil as a renewable fuel from waste sludge palm oil. Environ. Res. 220, 115169.
  20. IEA, 2022. An energy sector roadmap to net zero emissions in indonesia. Paris.
  21. Jaroonjitsathian, S., Noomwongs, N., Boonchukosol, K., 2016. Comprehensive experimental study on the effect of biodiesel/diesel blended fuel on common-rail di diesel engine technology. Int. J. Automot. Technol. 17, 289-298.
  22. Kaminski, P., 2022. Experimental investigation into the effects of fuel dilution on the change in chemical properties of lubricating oil used in fuel injection pump of pielstick PA4 V185 marine diesel engine. lubricants. 10(7), 162.
  23. Karavalakis, G., Jiang, Y., Yang, J., Durbin, T., Nuottimäki, J., Lehto, K., 2016. Emissions and fuel economy evaluation from two current technology heavy-duty trucks operated on HVO and FAME Blends. SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(1), 177-190.
  24. KESDM, 2020. Standard dan Mutu (Spesifikasi) Bahan Bakar Minyak Jenis Solar yang Dipasarkan di Dalam Negeri 146.K/10/DJM/2020.
  25. Lakshminarayanan, P.A., Nayak, N.S, Critical component wear in heavy duty engines, First ed. John Wiley & Sons(Asia) Pte. Ltd., India.
  26. Liu, J., Tao, B., 2022. Fractionation of fatty acid methyl esters via urea inclusion and its application to improve the low-temperature performance of biodiesel. Biofuel Res. J. 9(2), 1617-1629.
  27. Mansur, D., Fitriady, M.A., Setiapraja, H., Paryanto, I., Haspriyanti, N., Dela, N., Gozan, M., 2019. Precipitation Study of B30 Blended from FAME and/or HVO and Petro Diesel Fuel. SAE Technical Paper. 2019-01-2190.
  28. Markov, V., Kamaltdinov, V., Devyanin, S., Sa, B., Zherdev, A., Furman, V., 2021. Investigation of the influence of different vegetable oils as a component of blended biofuel on performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine for agricultural machinery and commercial vehicles. Resources. 10(8), 74.
  29. Mata, C., Cárdenas, D., Esarte, C., Soriano, J.A., Gómez, A., Fernández-Yáñez, P., García-Contreras, R., Sánchez, L., Nogueira, J.I., Armas, O., 2023. Performance and regulated emissions from a Euro VI-D hybrid bus tested with fossil and renewable (hydrotreated vegetable oil) diesel fuels under urban driving in Bilbao city, Spain. J. Clean. Prod. 383, 135472.
  30. Mikkonen, S., Honkanen, M., Kuronen, M., 2013. HVO, hydrotreated vegetable oil. a premium renewable biofuel for diesel engines. Germany. 281-291.
  31. Mujtaba, M.A., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Noor, F., Farooq, M., Ong, H.C., Gul, M., Soudagar, M.E.M., Bashir, S., Rizwanul Fattah, I.M., Razzaq, L., 2020. Effect of additivized biodiesel blends on diesel engine performance, emission, tribological characteristics, and lubricant tribology. Energies. 13(13), 3375.
  32. Neale, M.J., 1996. The Tribology Handbook, 2nd Ed. Elsevier, New Delhi.
  33. Paryanto, I., Budianta, I.A., Alifia, K.C.H., Hidayatullah, I.M., Darmawan, M.A., Judistira, Prakoso, T., Indarto, A., Gozan, M., 2022. Modelling of fuel filter clogging of B20 fuel based on the precipitate measurement and filter blocking test. ChemEngineering. 6(6), 84.
  34. Patel, C., Hwang, J., Bae, C., Agarwal, A.K., 2022. Review of regulated, unregulated and particulate emissions from biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engines. Int. J. Automot. Technol. 23(6), 1763-1785.
  35. Rayapureddy, S.M., Matijošius, J., Rimkus, A., Caban, J., Słowik, T., 2022. Comparative study of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of hydrotreated vegetable oil-biobutanol fuel blends and diesel fuel on a CI engine. Sustainability. 14(12), 7324.
  36. Reksowardojo, I.K., Setiapraja, H., Fajar, R., Wibowo, E., Kusdiana, D., 2020. An investigation of laboratory and road test of common rail injection vehicles fueled with B20 biodiesel. Energies. 13(22), 6118.
  37. Reksowardojo, I.K., Setiapraja, H., Mokhtar, Yubaidah, S., Mansur, D., Putri, A.K., 2023. A Study on utilization of high-ratio biodiesel and pure biodiesel in advanced vehicle technologies. Energies. 16(2), 718.
  38. Ropandi, M., Hayawin, Z.N., Astimar, A.A., Noorshamsiana, A.W., Ridzuan, R., Zawawi, I., 2022. Effect Of biofuel on light-duty vehicles engine performance and lube oil degradation. J. Oil Palm Res. 34(1), 104-115.
  39. Serrano, L., Pereira, N., de Carvalho, P.M., 2021. Comparative performance and efficiency of EURO VI heavy-duty engines fueled by biodiesel, HVO and Diesel, in: da Costa Sanches Galvão, J.R., Duque de Brito, P.S., dos Santos Neves, F., da Silva Craveiro, F.G., de Amorim Almeida, H., Correia Vasco, J.O., Pires Neves, L.M., de Jesus Gomes, R., de Jesus Martins Mourato, S., Santos Ribeiro, V.S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Water Energy Food and Sustainability (ICoWEFS 2021). Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 271-279.
  40. Setiapraja, H., Yubaidah, S., Ekasari, M., Haspriyanti, N., Rustyawan, W., Rochim, A., 2019. An effect of utilization B30 from various blends of B0:FAME and HVO on emissions, fuel consumption and power of Euro4 vehicle technology. SAE Technical Paper. 2019-01-2189.
  41. Shepel, O., Matijošius, J., Rimkus, A., Duda, K., Mikulski, M., 2021. Research of parameters of a compression ignition engine using various fuel mixtures of hydrotreated vegetable oil (Hvo) and fatty acid esters (fae). Energies. 14(11), 3077.
  42. Stępień, Z., 2014. Intake valve and combustion chamber deposits formation-the engine and fuel related factors that impacts their growth. Nafta-Gaz. 4, 236-242.
  43. Sugiyama, K., Goto, I., Kitano, K., Mogi, K., Honkanen, M., 2011. Effects of hydrotreated vegetable Oil (HVO) as renewable diesel fuel on combustion and exhaust emissions in diesel engine. SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(1), 205-217.
  44. Suryantoro, M.T., Sugiarto, B., Chistian, D., Samudra, B., Gusfa, Z., 2016. Deposit characterization of a diesel engine combustion chamber by droplets at hot chamber temperature: effect of temperature on evaporation time and deposit structure. Int. J. Technol. 7(8), 1373-1381.
  45. Szeto, W., Leung, D.Y., 2022. Is hydrotreated vegetable oil a superior substitute for fossil diesel? a comprehensive review on physicochemical properties, engine performance and emissions. Fuel. 327, 125065.
  46. Taylor, R.I., 2021. Fuel-lubricant interactions: critical review of recent work. Lubricants. 9(9), 92.
  47. Vijay Kumar, M., Veeresh Babu, A., Ravi Kumar, P., Sudhakara Reddy, S.,  2018. Experimental investigation of the combustion characteristics of Mahua oil biodiesel-diesel blend using a DI diesel engine modified with EGR and nozzle hole orifice diameter. Biofuel Res. J. 5(3), 863-871.
  48. Ziejewski, M., Goettler, H., Pratt, G.L., 1986. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine. SAE Trans. 95, 297-307.