A review on biomass: importance, chemistry, classification, and conversion

Document Type : Review Paper


Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 15D, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Cs), Italy.


Biomass is currently the most widespread form of renewable energy and its exploitation is further increasing due to the concerns over the devastative impacts of fossil fuel consumption, i.e., climate change, global warming and their negative impacts on human health. In line with that, the present articles reviews the different sources of biomass available, along with their chemical composition and properties. Subsequently, different conversion technologies (i.e., thermo-chemical, biochemical, and physico-chemical conversions) and their corresponding products are reviewed and discussed. In the continuation, the global status of biomass vs. the other renewable energies is scrutinized. Moreover, biomass-derived energy production was analyzed from economic and environmental perspectives. Finally, the challenges faced to further expand the share of biomass-derived energy carriers in the global energy market are presented.

Graphical Abstract

A review on biomass: importance, chemistry, classification, and conversion


  • Overview of biomass sources and related chemical composition are presented.
  • Biomass conversion technologies and final products are reviewed and discussed.
  • Economic and environmental analysis of biomass-derived energy production was presented.
  • Challenges for further expanssion of biomass-derived energy production are presented.


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