Document Type: Review Paper
National Research Council Canada, Low Carbon Fuels and Combustion, 1200 Montreal Road Building M-9, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0R6.
University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Thompson Engineering Building, Room TEB 459, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B9.
Lallemand Biofuels & Distilled Spirits, 1815 Satellite Boulevard, Building 200, Duluth, GA 30097, USA.
Western Sarnia-Lambton Research Park, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada.
The necessity to find renewable and low carbon fuels as a critical component of the strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Canada has caused the biofuels industry to rapidly expand. However, there is a higher capacity for the use of biofuels to replace conventional petroleum fuels in Canada than outlined by cur rent regulations and programs. A wide range of feedstocks, processes, and applications for liquid biofuels can be found in Canada at varying degrees of progress. To reach the full potential of the biofuels industry in Canada, it is important to understand the broad landscape of the biofuels industry and areas of promise. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of liquid biofuels in Canada. This includes national feedstock availability and conversion processes to produce liquid biofuels. Both biochemical and thermochemical processes over a wide range of technology readiness levels, from R&D to commercialization, will be included. Current industry, government, and/or academic support for these production activities will b e referenced where applicable. The transportation applications of commercially available liquid biofuels in Canada will be reviewed. Finally, comments on future prospects to boost environmental and economic competitiveness of the biofuels industry in Canada will be provided.
- In Canada, the potential use of biomass for biofuels far exceeds current use.
- Various technologies that range in TRL are being explored for biofuel production.
- Advanced drop-in fuel development is beneficial for significant fuel switching.
- A multifaceted approach to boost the liquid biofuels industry further is required.